The figure on the painting resembles the goddess of Justice Femida.
But it is more likely that the “eternal” question is to be answered
here: what was at the beginning of the World (or Life). The two men
are disputing about that. These are the characters, carried over
from the “School of Athens” by Raphael. One of the philosophers is
pointing to the sky, preferring the heavenly beginning and another –
pointing down, considering the earthy beginning.